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From Field to Bulgur


The Bulgur is a unique food pertain to turkish community and it takes important place of bulgur production in Turkey,but howewer does not meet quality of the bulgur which is expected level anytime.In addition to this there are some various reasons ,the most important scopes are  producing of bulgur using old technology or not able to choose right raw material.

The Bulgur produces at village houses,small Works and flour mills,factories.At houses and small mills produce almost the same system in bulgur production in spite of this factories use more different production system than the others.


In bulgur production,we mostly prefer to durum wheat in our country.This wheat is a variety of  hard type wheat and provides bright structured of bulgur.The staple wheat types are şahman,karakılçık,kundura,çakmak79,zivago etc. which is  the most convenient in production.In the meantime, manufacturers should also place importance to discoloured grains less than the others in these wheat types.The wheat for bread can also use in bulgur production in case of not found  the hard durum wheat.But It is important that wheat should be hard wheat for bread and white.ıf wheat soft type may cause into mash pulp while in cooking process.On the other hand view of bulgur converts into a tarnish structure and taste of bulgur also affects in negatively.

We can analyse production of Bulgur in 8 stages.These are in turn the wheat;
1. Cleaning and Washing
2. Soaking
3. Cooking
4. Drying
5. Sieving
6. Paring
7. Crushing and Second Sieving
8. Packing and Storage

1. Cleaning and Washing:
After choosing of the wheat according to standards; The wheat must be cleaned using by machines or hand from stalk,fodder,stones,soil,foreign seeds and legumes grains which is disordering of wheat quality spesifications.
The cleaned wheat washing several times in washing pans to provide seperating from completely soil and dust.

2. Soaking:
Washed and Cleaned wheat putting in soaking pans to start soaking process.Benefit of the soaking is providing absorbing of the necessary water into starch which is founded in wheat structure in order to quick gelatinization during cooking process.In soaking be aware of the issue ;the water should be clean,sterilized not too hard.

3. Cooking:
Cooking is ;Boiling of the wheat which has been absorbed enough water in its structure at 95 C degrees during 1-2 hours in hot water.The cooking is the most important process step which affects on bulgur quality.
Therefore,in these processes should pay attention;

  • The starch should gelatinizatized during the cooking of the wheat but grain of wheat should not disperse and starch should not become apparent.Therefore ,wheat should cook in high temperatures
  • The cooking should be completely.When the wheat grain cuts ,it should not be any white.
  • The cooked wheat should not be lumping,cohesion,dispersion and discolouring –tarnishing(blackening)
  • Amount of the additional water for cooking should arrange very well so that cooking of wheat and gelatinizated of the starch should be completed,should not be placed white spots in wheat and  water inside of the pan should absorb completely by wheat grains. If there remain any water in the cooking pan ,it may cause important missing on nutrition values of the Bulgur.
  • The cover lifts up , after the bulgur stirred up with wood scoop,it would cover above with  cloth and put on hold for  a while.Thus ,provides cooking of well uncooked wheat thanks to steam.
  • The Wheat also can cook in vacuum pans under the high pressure.By this way the time may reduce in 10-15 minutes.

4. Drying:
Drying is a process in order to reducing to water rate(humidty) in cooked wheat grain approximately 10 % .The cooked wheat take to flat place to laying on 1-1,5 cm thicknesses spreading widely.Products are dried very well mixing from time to time.The drying places can choose from beton or laying clothes on these flat places.Sun drying takes long time but using in drying rooms would be more healtier and saving the time efficiently.
The bulgur can dry giving heat weather 60-70 °C into drying rooms by ventilators in 4-5 hours.However,here being awareness of the important issue is colour of bulgur may convert in darkening when the heat rise up over 70°C.

5. Sieving:
This process is not preferring commonly but only factories using this process in their production stages.
Thanks to sieving of the wheat provides re-sizing of wheat grain,make easier paring processing and second time cleaning.

6. Paring:
Husks of the cooked wheat paring various methods splits from bulgur.Before started to paring ,if the bulgur soaking slightly with water,paring process would be more easier and quicker.
Bulgur is also paring using crushing machines or vertical Stones at the small workshops meanwhile, the husk of wheat paring by pounding wooden mallets on stone mortars at houses. After that the bulgur lays on the flat place again for sun drying to fly out the water inside of the grain.

7. Crushing and Second Sieving:
Dried Bulgur crushes and sievs by using hand mills or thanks to spesific machines which is made of especially for bulgur production according to desired size of the bulgur. Thickness of bulgur changes depends on habits and using goal but generally ;
As dividing following main size;

1. Medium Bulgur ( for pilaf) : grains which is staying under pore opening is 2,5 mm sieves.
2. Fine Bulgur ( for soup ) : grains which is staying under pore opening is 1,5 mm sieves.

Smaller than fine grain product entitle as UNDER SIEVE ,either that grain throw out or uses in different ways.
At the crushing and sieving process comes out small amount bran ,but this also keeps away from the place using weather circulation.

8. Packing and Storage:
Bulgur should store in new packs as made of cloth sacks,bags etc. which is not able to cause any damage inside it.
Storage areas is must be in cool,dry and humid-free.ıf the storage area is humid or if the bulgur could not become dried well ,this cause growth of mould and deformation.The temperature of the storage place is up to 30-35°C ,this may also cause souring and rancidity. If the storage area does not get sun light directly and if the temperature is about 20°C,bulgur can storage during 2 years without any spoiling.


Bulgurun Tarihi
Buğday Türk kültürünün ve Mezopotamya uygarlıklarının en önemli öğelerinden biri. Binlerce yıl önce kültüre alınan bu bitki olmasaydı belki de insan uygarlığı bu şekilde gelişemeyecekti.
From Field to Bulgur
Bulgur yapmaya elverişli başlıca durum çeşitleri şahman, karakılçık, kundura, çakmak 79 vb. dir. Ayrıca bu buğdaylarda dönmeli dane miktarının az olmasına önem gösterilmelidir.
Bulgurun Yararları
Bulgurda bulunan B1 vitaminleri sinir ve sindirim sisteminin çalışmasında önemli rol oynamaktadır. Bulgurdaki besin değeri ekmek ve makarnadan daha yüksektir. Bulgur kolesterol içermez.
Bulgur Yemekleri

-Bulgur çorbaları
-Bulgur Pilavları
-Bulgur tatlıları

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